January 2014 Permafrost Alert

The U.S. Permafrost Association, together with the American Geosciences Institute (AGI), is pleased to provide the following Permafrost Monthly Alerts (PMA). The AGI GeoRef service regularly scans the contents of over 3500 journals in 40 languages from the global geosciences literature, comprised of approximately 345 different sources. In addition to journals, special publications such as papers in proceedings and hard-to-find publications are provided. Each PMA represents a listing of the permafrost-related materials added to GeoRef during the previous month. Where available, a direct link to the publication is included, which provides access to the full document if you or your institution have a current online subscription.

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14013001 Raynolds, Martha K. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Institute of Arctic Biology, Fairbanks, AK); Walker, Donald A.; Ambrosius, Kenneth J.; Brown, Jerry; Everett, Kaye R.; Kanevskiy, Mikhail; Kofinas, Gary P.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Shur, Yuri and Webber, Patrick J. Cumulative geoecological effects of 62 years of infrastucture and climate change in ice-rich permafrost landscapes, Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, Alaska: Global Change Biology, PRE-ISSUE PUBLICATION, 14 p., illus. incl. sketch map, 75 ref., February 2014.

Many areas of the Arctic are simultaneously affected by rapid climate change and rapid industrial development. These areas are likely to increase in number and size as sea ice melts and abundant Arctic natural resources become more accessible. Documenting the changes that have already occurred is essential to inform management approaches to minimize the impacts of future activities. Here, we determine the cumulative geoecological effects of 62 years (1949-2011) of infrastructure- and climate-related changes in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, the oldest and most extensive industrial complex in the Arctic, and an area with extensive ice-rich permafrost that is extraordinarily sensitive to climate change. We demonstrate that thermokarst has recently affected broad areas of the entire region, and that a sudden increase in the area affected began shortly after 1990 corresponding to a rapid rise in regional summer air temperatures and related permafrost temperatures. We also present a conceptual model that describes how infrastructure-related factors, including road dust and roadside flooding are contributing to more extensive thermokarst in areas adjacent to roads and gravel pads. We mapped the historical infrastructure changes for the Alaska North Slope oilfields for 10 dates from the initial oil discovery in 1968-2011. By 2010, over 34% of the intensively mapped area was affected by oil development. In addition, between 1990 and 2001, coincident with strong atmospheric warming during the 1990s, 19% of the remaining natural landscapes (excluding areas covered by infrastructure, lakes and river floodplains) exhibited expansion of thermokarst features resulting in more abundant small ponds, greater microrelief, more active lakeshore erosion and increased landscape and habitat heterogeneity. This transition to a new geoecological regime will have impacts to wildlife habitat, local residents and industry

DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12500

14011350 Neuner, Matthew (University of British Columbia, Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Vancouver, BC, Canada); Smith, Leslie; Blowes, David W.; Sego, David C.; Smith, Lianna J. D.; Fretz, Nathan and Gupton, Michael. The Diavik waste rock project; water flow through mine waste rock in a permafrost terrain: Applied Geochemistry, 36, p. 222-233, illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map, 30 ref., September 2013. Includes appendices.

A field experiment is being carried out at the Diavik diamond mine in northern Canada to investigate the influence of unsaturated flow behavior on the quality of drainage from mine waste rock piles in a region of continuous permafrost. This paper is part of a series describing processes affecting the weathering of waste rock and transport of reaction products at this site; here the focus is on unsaturated water flow and its role in mass loading. Two 15 m-high instrumented test piles have been built on 60 m by 50 m collection systems, each consisting of lysimeters and a large impermeable high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner. Collection lysimeters are installed nearby to investigate infiltration in the upper 2 m of the waste rock. Porosity, water retention curves, and hydraulic conductivity functions are estimated from field measurements and for samples ranging in size from 200 cm3 to 16 m3. Net infiltration in 2007 is estimated to have been 37% of the rainfall for mean annual rainfall conditions. Early-season infiltration freezes and is remobilized as the waste rock thaws. Wetting fronts migrate at rates of 0.2-0.4 m d-1 in response to common rainfall events and up to 5 m d-1 in response to intense rainfall. Pore water and non-reactive solutes travel at rates of <10-2 to 3 ´ 10-2 m d-1 in response to common rainfall events and up to 0.7 m d-1 in response to intense rainfall. Time-varying SO4 mass loading from the base of the test piles is dictated primarily by the flow behavior, rather than by changes in solute concentrations.

DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.03.011

14011351 Pham, Nam H. (University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, AB, Canada); Sego, David C.; Arenson, Lukas U.; Blowes, David W.; Amos, Richard T. and Smith, Leslie. The Diavik waste rock project; measurement of the thermal regime of a waste rock test pile in a permafrost environment: Applied Geochemistry, 36, p. 234-245, illus. incl. 2 tables, sketch map, 25 ref., September 2013.

The interior thermal regime of a field-scale experimental waste rock pile in the Northwest Territories, Canada, was studied. Test pile construction was completed in the summer 2006, and temperature data was collected continuously since that time to February 2009. The temperature data indicates the test pile cooled over the study period, with an average heat energy release of -2.5 ´ 104 and -2.6 ´ 104 MJ in 2007 and 2008, respectively. The mean annual air temperature (MAAT) at the site was -8.9 °C during the period between 2006 and 2009, with a permafrost table at a depth of 4 m in bedrock away from the pile. Because of this cold environment, the upward movement rate of the 0 °C isotherm into the test pile at its base was approximately 1.5 m a-1 during 2007 and 2008. Thermistor strings installed immediately below the base of the test pile showed the test-pile basal temperatures remained near and below 0 °C during the study period. Furthermore, due to low rates of sulfide mineral oxidation, elevated temperatures in the interior of the test pile were not observed. The average air velocity in the pore space in July 2007 and 2008 was about one third of that during January of each year based on temperature distributions. Therefore, due to higher air velocity during the winter, it is expected that heat transfer is greater during winter.

DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.05.007

14009507 Nasir, Othman (University of Ottawa, Civil Engineering Department, Ottawa, ON, Canada); Fall, Mamadou; Nguyen, Son T. and Evgin, Erman. Modeling of the thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical response of sedimentary rocks to past glaciations: International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences (1997), 64, p. 160-174, illus. incl. 5 tables, 47 ref., December 2013.

Thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) coupled processes that have resulted from long term past climate changes and glaciation cycles in the sedimentary rocks of southern Ontario are investigated. A conceptual numerical model has been developed to solve four coupled partial differential equations (PDEs), which represent hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and chemical processes. The finite element method is used to solve the PDEs under transient surface boundary conditions imposed by past glaciation cycles to predict the hydraulic, mechanical, thermal and geochemical responses of the geological system. The results show that past glaciations have a significant impact on the hydraulic gradient and pressure, vertical effective stress and salinity profiles, and a limited effect on the permafrost depth. The predicted results show good agreement when compared with the field data for the total dissolved solid, rock strength and quality. The results show relatively good agreement with the anomalous pore water pressure profile in the field. The modeling results indicate that the infiltration depth of glacial melted water is less than 300 m, and are consistent with the field observation of total dissolved solids. At the level of a deep geological repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes being planned in these rock formations, a safety factor of 6.9 is predicted against failure by using Hoek-Brown failure envelopes, while a low safety factor of 0.83 is predicted at the shallower level of the Silurian (Salina) formation. It is found that solute transport at the middle and upper Ordovician formations are diffusion dominated at depths of 300 m or more, and controlled by diffusion-advection above 300 m. Based on the results obtained, the modeling of a past glaciation can be used with reasonable confidence in predicting the impact of future glaciations related to the long term safety and stability of the proposed DGR in the sedimentary formation. However, for site specific conditions, THMC modeling is very sensitive to material properties, and sensitivity analysis is required for future model development. Abstract Copyright (2013) Elsevier, B.V.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2013.08.002

14014404 Sommé, Jean (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille I, Géographie, Villeneuve-d'Ascq, France). L'apport de Jean-Pierre Lautridou à la connaissance des loess [The contribution of Jean-Pierre Lautridou to the knowledge of loess]: Quaternaire (Paris), 24(3), p. 233-236 (English sum.), 35 ref., September 2013.

The researches of Jean-Pierre Lautridou on loess began with his thesis on superficial deposits of Caux country and were extended to whole Normandy. He proposed a so called geomorphological new definition of loess and specified its granulometric composition. The effect of permafrost was proved. Pleistocene interglacial-glacial cycles in Normandy were described. The regional facies maps and the litho-chronostratigraphical correlations were made with neighbouring countries. The dating of marine deposits and terraces was renewed by the interpretation of loess and head covers. Jean-Pierre Lautridou contributed to the adoption and propagation of the north-western european chronostratigraphical system in conformity with stratigraphic procedures.

14013184 Khimenkov, A. N. (Rossiyskaya Akademiya Nauk, Institut Geoekologii, Moscow, Russian Federation). Geosistemnyy podkhod v geokriologii [Geosystem approach in geocryology]: Kriosfera Zemli = Earth Cryosphere, 17(2), p. 74-82 (English sum.), table, 24 ref., June 2013.

The methodology of systems concept used in permafrost science is substantiated. The cryolithozone is the assembly of hierarchic organized cryogenic systems. The common practical requirements for systems concept methods are considered.

14013148 Sleptsov, V. I. (Rossiyskaya Akademiya Nauk, Sibirskoye Otdeleniye, Institut Gornogo Dela Severa, Yakutsk, Russian Federation) and Kurilko, A. S. Raschet dinamiki osypaniya borta kar'yera dlya karbonatnykh porod raznoy morozostoykosti [Calculation of dynamics of pit side crumbling for carbonate rocks with different frost resistance]: Fiziko-Tekhnicheskiye Problemy Razrabotki Poleznykh Iskopayemykh, 2013(1), p. 34-41, illus., 15 ref., February 2013.

A mathematical model of heat exchange of a pit bench with the atmosphere is suggested. It allows one to predict the temperature field of permafrost, change of basic components of daily radiation balance, slope angle and surface orientation, and influence of adjacent rock benches. Temporal dependence of the thickness of a layer of rock falling from the surface of the pit bench resulted in the cyclic freezing-thawing process for rocks of different frost stability is evaluated by the example of Udachnyy Mine rocks, Yakutia.

14012804 Monnier, Sébastien (Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Zonas Áridas, La Serena, Chile) and Kinnard, Christophe. Internal structure and composition of a rock glacier in the Andes (upper Choapa Valley, Chile) using borehole information and ground-penetrating radar: Annals of Glaciology, 55(64), p. 61-72, illus. incl. strat. col., sketch map, 75 ref., 2013.

This study uses boreholes, ground temperature monitoring and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) in order to understand the internal structure and composition of a rock glacier in the upper Choapa valley, northern Chile. The rock glacier is a small valley-side feature, 200 m long and ranging between 3710 and 3780 m a.s.l. Two boreholes were drilled down to depths of 20 and 25 m, respectively, using the diamond drillhole technique. An ice-rock mixture was encountered in the boreholes, with heterogeneous ice content averaging 15-30%. Data from common-midpoint (CMP) and constant-offset (CO) GPR surveys acquired, respectively, near the boreholes and across the whole rock glacier were processed to highlight the internal stratigraphy and variations in the radar-wave velocity. The GPR profiles depict a rock glacier constituted of stacked and generally concordant layers, with a thickness ranging from 10 m in its upper part to ~30 m towards its terminus. The CMP analysis highlights radar-wave velocities of 0.13-0.16 m ns-1 in the first 20 m of the structure. Larger vertical and lateral velocity variations are highlighted from CO data, reflecting the heterogeneous composition of the rock glacier and the likely presence of unfrozen water in the structure. Given the average air temperature registered at the site (+0.5°C), the near-melting-point temperature registered in the boreholes over more than a year and the presence of locally high water content inferred from GPR data, it is thought that the permafrost in the rock glacier is currently degrading.

DOI: 10.3189/2013AoG64A107

14013182 Chuvilin, E. M. (Moskovskiy Gosudarstvennyy Universitet, Moscow, Russian Federation); Bukhanov, B. A.; Tumskoy, V. E.; Shakhova, N. E.; Dudarev, O. V. and Semiletov, I. P. Teploprovodnost' donnykh otlozheniy v rayone guby Buor-Khaya (shel'f morya Laptevykh) [Thermal conductivity of bottom sediments in the region of Buor-Khaya Bay (Laptev Sea shelf)]: Kriosfera Zemli = Earth Cryosphere, 17(2), p. 32-40 (English sum.), illus. incl. sect., sketch map, 34 ref., June 2013.

This paper presents the actual values of the thermal conductivity of sediments of the upper horizons of the Laptev Sea shelf permafrost. The data have been obtained during researches in the Buor-Khaya Bay to the east from Muostah Island by the Russian-American project of studying the methane potential in seas of the eastern Arctic. The thermal conductivity of sediments and their water content and density have been investigated in field conditions to the under-bottom depth of 52.3 m. During investigations of the cores of bottom sediments the features of variation in the thermal conductivity values have been detected. In that, the analysis of the influence of water content, density, porosity, and lithology on the thermal conductivity of sediments has been carried out. It has been found out that the content of clay and silt particles is the main factor affecting the thermal conductivity of the investigated sediments.

14009707 Shakhova, Natalia (University of Alaska at Fairbanks, International Arctic Research Center, Fairbanks, AK); Semiletov, Igor; Leifer, Ira; Sergienko, Valentin; Salyuk, Anatoly; Kosmach, Denis; Chernykh, Denis; Stubbs, Chris; Nicolsky, Dmitry; Tumskoy, Vladimir and Gustafsson, Orjan. Ebullition and storm-induced methane release from the East Siberian Arctic shelf: Nature Geoscience, 7(1), p. 64-70, illus. incl. 1 table, sketch maps, 38 ref., January 2014.

DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2007

14014239 Akagawa, Satoshi (Cryosphere Engineering Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan). Frost heaving observed in thawing soil: in Collected papers on Frozen ground (Takeda, Kazuo, editor), Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 275-289, (Japanese) (English sum.), illus. incl. 3 tables, 31 ref., September 2013.

Frost heaving of slowly thawing welded tuff has reported so far. However no report is seen on frost heaving in thawing frozen soils. In this paper frost heaving in thawing process of variety of frozen soils such as frozen clay, silt and fines containing sand are demonstrated and discussed the mechanism. A main point of the discussions is the role of the tensile strength developed in frozen fringe. The tensile strength of the frozen soil in the frozen fringe temperature range is reported as some hundreds kPa. When the ice pressure given by the Generalized Clausius-Clapeyron Equation overcomes the tensile strength an isotherm in frozen fringe, the frozen soil splits at the isotherm. This event leads the depression of unfrozen water pressure and super cooling at the plain of the splitting. These two conditions are thought to be the resources of frost heaving observed in thawing frozen soils.

14014243 Ikeda, Atsushi (University of Tsukuba, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan). Origins of rock glaciers; a review: in Collected papers on Frozen ground (Takeda, Kazuo, editor), Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 325-342, (Japanese), illus., 109 ref., September 2013.

14014244 Iwahana, Go (University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Arctic Research Center, Fairbanks, AK). A review of studies on Yedoma Suite; Part 1, Overview of the research history and connection to climate change: in Collected papers on Frozen ground (Takeda, Kazuo, editor), Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 343-352, (Japanese), illus. incl. sketch map, 60 ref., September 2013.

14014245 Iwahana, Go (University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Arctic Research Center, Fairbanks, AK). A review of studies on Yedoma Suite; Part 2, Paleoenvironmental information from the Yedoma deposits: in Collected papers on Frozen ground (Takeda, Kazuo, editor), Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 353-364, (Japanese), illus. incl. sketch maps, 69 ref., September 2013.

14014238 Matsuoka, Keiji (Seiken Company, Osaka, Japan); Ueda, Yasushi and Sumitani, Daisaku. Effect evaluation of unfrozen water on heat transfer with the nonsteady heat conduction analysis: in Collected papers on Frozen ground (Takeda, Kazuo, editor), Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 263-273, (Japanese) (English sum.), illus. incl. 3 tables, 6 ref., September 2013.

When the ground is frozen, some pore water may not be frozen because there is unfrozen water even if the temperature drops to freezing point or below. In the artificial ground freezing technique, it is necessary to understand the temperature drop and freezing speed of the ground as correctly as possible; therefore, thermal analysis in which unfrozen water is taken into account is required. In this paper, we suggest derivation of the unsteady heat conduction analysis method based on difference formulae in which unfrozen water is taken into account and suggest estimation formulae for the amount of unfrozen water. Freezing and thawing experiments were conducted indoors using clay and sand as soil samples and fresh water and salt water as pore water. When the experimental results and analytical values based on this analysis method were compared, they matched each other well.

14014240 Saito, Kazuyuki (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Research Institute for Global Change, Yokohama, Japan); Sueyoshi, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Kunio and Takeda, Kazuo. Collection and archiving of historical domestic soil temperature and frost depth data: in Collected papers on Frozen ground (Takeda, Kazuo, editor), Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 291-296, (Japanese), illus. incl. 1 table, 11 ref., September 2013.

14014236 Takeda, Kazuo, editor. Collected papers on Frozen ground: Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 251-364, (Japanese) (English sum.), illus., September 2013. Individual papers are cited separately.

14014241 Yahagi, Hiroshi (Hokkaido University of Education, Sapporo, Japan). Some researches on frozen soil 100 years ago: in Collected papers on Frozen ground (Takeda, Kazuo, editor), Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 297-314, (Japanese), illus. incl. 3 tables, 34 ref., September 2013.

14013183 Fotiyev, S. M. (Rossiyskaya Akademiya Nauk, Sibirskoye Otdeleniye, Institut Kriosfery Zemli, Tyumen, Russian Federation). Podzemnyye vody kriogennoy oblasti Rossii (klassifikatsiya) [Ground water in cryogenic area of Russia (classification)]: Kriosfera Zemli = Earth Cryosphere, 17(2), p. 41-59 (English sum.), illus. incl. 4 tables, sketch map, 44 ref., June 2013.

During the cryogenic period (the last 3.1 million years) the geothermal and hydrological conditions inside the geological structures have essentially changed all over the vast circumpolar area of Russia. As a result of perennial freezing of rocks, thick low-temperature cryogenic aquicludes formed inside the structures. They had considerably changed the conditions of water-exchange, the hydrochemical zonality and the capacity of hydrogeological structures. Based on the contemporary scientific researches in the fields of hydrogeology and geocryology, the enormous but utterly irregular (in time and space) influence of the process of cryogenic metamorphism of rocks on the transformation of the hydrogeological conditions inside the hydrogeological structures situated in various geocryological zones has been revealed. Elaborating the classification of the underground waters of the cryogenic area, the author proceeded from the assumption that the geological structures and the accumulation of the main types of the underground waters inside them had formed before the beginning of the cryogenic period. During the cryogenic period the underground waters had maintained the active thermal resistance to the perennial freezing of rocks. Therefore, the classification of the underground waters of the cryogenic area has been founded on the key hydrogeological feature of the rocks--their water permeability.

14013180 Mel'nikov, V. P. (Rossiyskaya Akademiya Nauk, Sibirskoye Otdeleniye, Institut Kriosfery Zemli, Tyumen, Russian Federation); Gennadinik, V. B. and Brushkov, A. V. Aspekty kriosofii; krioraznoobtraziye v prirode [Aspects of cryosophy; cryodiversity in nature]: Kriosfera Zemli = Earth Cryosphere, 17(2), p. 3-11 (English sum.), illus. incl. sketch maps, 16 ref., June 2013.

"Cryodiversity" is the observed diversity of objects and phenomena associated with the cold and the phase transitions of water. It requires a description, analysis and subsequent integration of information in the system of scientific knowledge. Remaining in borders of the old narrow methodology, geocryology cannot fully meet the needs of science. The article presents new examples of cryodiversity illustrating the effect of the cryosphere on geological, biological and social processes. Three key reasons of diversity have been marked out: anomalous thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the ice, the peculiarities of the hydrogen bond and wide occurrence of cryogenic systems and conditions.

14013186 Neradovskiy, L. G. (Rossiyskaya Akademiya Nauk, Sibirskoye Otdeleniye, Institut Merzlotovedeniya, Yakutsk, Russian Federation) and Litovko, A. V. Opyt i perspektivy ispol'zovaniya induktivnoy elektrorazvedki v monitoringe temperatury merzlykh gruntov [Experience and prospects for the application of frequency-domain electromagnetic methods in frozen ground temperature monitoring]: Kriosfera Zemli = Earth Cryosphere, 17(2), p. 93-103 (English sum.), illus. incl. 2 tables, 9 ref., June 2013.

A methodology of experimental studies of the temperature field influence on attenuation of the induced electromagnetic field strength at the frequency of 1.125 MHz has been developed. Appropriate mathematical models for practical application were found for the purpose of approximate calculation of temperatures in the layer of annual amplitude variations using the data of electromagnetic sounding. The accuracy of the models functioning has been studied, and the prospects for using an induction survey in terms of non-destructive examination and prediction of the thermal state of frozen foundations of engineering constructions have been evaluated.

14012600 Greene, Charles H. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY). Die Rückkehr der harten Winter [The return of hard winters]: Spektrum der Wissenschaft, 2013(3), p. 76-81, illus., 5 ref., 2013.

14013077 Alekseyev, V. R. (Rossiyskaya Akademiya Nauk, Sibirskoye Otdeleniye, Institut Geografii, Irkutsk, Russian Federation). Talaya voda; kriogennyy resurs planety [Meltwater; cryogenic resource of the planet]: Geografiya i Prirodnyye Resursy, 2012(1), p. 24-31 (English sum.), 2 tables, 13 ref., March 2012.

The characteristic properties of melt water are formed through transformation of molecular structure of liquid during its natural crystallization and the subsequent thawing of the ice. Melt water is a natural cryogenic resource that plays a crucial role in the life of the Earth and in the world's water management. With advances in technologies and with an increase in human population, the significance of melt water will be enhanced.

14014570 Morse, Peter D. (Carleton University, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Ottawa, ON, Canada) and Burn, Christopher R. Perennial frost blisters of the outer Mackenzie Delta, western Arctic coast, Canada: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 39(2), p. 200-213, illus. incl. 2 tables, geol. sketch map, 42 ref., February 2014.

Saturated floodplains in Arctic deltas provide conditions favourable for frost mound growth. Little work has been reported from these settings to determine the origin of frost mounds and the controls on their distribution, to assess the longevity of individual mounds, or to quantify variation of mound distribution over time. A case study is presented on low mounds in low-centred syngenetic ice-wedge polygons of Big Lake Delta Plain, outer Mackenzie Delta. In 2008 and 2009, 12 mounds were examined by drilling to describe their morphologic variations and to investigate their growth processes. The mounds, containing a core of ice 15 to 58 cm thick, were less than 1 m high and 3 · 7 to 8 · 5 m in diameter; other mounds were over 10 m long. Organic inclusions in the ice, bubble densities, electrical conductivity profiles, and ice-crystal structure indicated that the mounds were hydrostatic frost blisters. Up to six frost blisters were found within individual polygons due to the relatively small volume of water needed to create each mound. Frost-blister densities, of greater than 1700 km-2, increased toward the wet centres of alluvial islands down gentle topographic gradients. The frost blisters were perennial, with individuals remaining identifiable on aerial photographs and satellite images for up to 10 years. Frost blisters collapsed along dilation cracks opened by hydrostatic uplift and by thawing from their sides caused by snow drifting and water ponding. Cyclical growth and decay of the mounds may degrade the visible polygonal network over time. Abstract Copyright (2010), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

DOI: 10.1002/esp.3439

14012953 Meerschman, E. (Ghent University, Department of Soil Management, Ghent, Belgium); van Meirvenne, M.; Mariethoz, G.; Islam, M. M.; de Smedt, P.; van de Vijver, E. and Saey, T. Using bivariate multiple-point statistics and proximal soil sensor data to map fossil ice-wedge polygons: in Innovations in pedometrics (Boruvka, Lubos, editor; et al.), Geoderma, 213, p. 571-577, illus., 40 ref., January 2014.

Multiple-point statistics (MPS) is a collection of geostatistical simulation algorithms that uses a multiple-point training image (TI) as structural model instead of a two-point variogram. MPS allows to simulate more complex random fields, like phenomena characterized by spatial connectivity. A very recent development is multivariate MPS in which an ensemble of variables can be simulated simultaneously using a multivariate TI. We investigated if multivariate MPS can be used for the processing of proximal soil sensor data, i.e. interpolating the sensor data and predicting the target variable. We measured a field with fossil ice-wedge polygons in the subsoil with an electromagnetic induction sensor and used these measurements to predict the location of wedge material in the subsoil. We built a bivariate TI with a categorical image of a random polygonal network as primary variable and a continuous image of the corresponding sensor values as secondary variable. Then, we performed a bivariate reconstruction with the recently developed Direct Sampling software. The resulting E-types provided an interpolated sensor data map and a probability map predicting the location of wedge material in the subsoil. This procedure was compared to the more traditional approach of interpolating the sensor data with ordinary kriging and performing a fuzzy k-means classification. Comparing the resulting maps with an aerial photograph revealing the location of the ice-wedges through polygonal crop marks, showed that MPS reconstructed the polygonal patterns much better. The local accuracy of the MPS maps was proven by an independent quantitative validation based on nine extra measurement lines and 94 bore hole samples. As a first application in soil science, our case study showed that multivariate MPS can be used for the processing of proximal soil sensor data. The flexibility of the technique opens perspectives for other new applications and therefore multivariate MPS can become a valuable part of the pedometrical toolbox. Abstract Copyright (2014) Elsevier, B.V.

DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.01.016

14012911 Villagran, Ximena S. (University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Geosciences, Sao Paulo, Brazil) and Poch, Rosa M. A new form of needle-fiber calcite produced by physical weathering of shells: in Innovations in pedometrics (Boruvka, Lubos, editor; et al.), Geoderma, 213, p. 173-177, illus. incl. sketch map, 37 ref., January 2014.

Needle-fiber calcite is a common crystal form in soils and sediments from diverse environmental settings, and it has been used as evidence of a specific soil development either past or present. However, it can have either a physicochemical or a biological origin and its ubiquity prevents straightforward use as an environmental proxy. In this paper, we present a new form of needle-fiber calcite, derived neither from biologically mediated mineralization in the soil nor from physicochemical precipitation. This needle-fiber calcite is monocrystalline and prismatic, and is associated with the physical weathering of Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) bivalve shells found in soils from anthropic shell middens located on the northern coast of the Beagle Channel (Argentina). The effects of freeze-thaw cycles can be observed in the local soils and would be responsible for the release of the calcite crystals that make up the outer layer of the shell. In this respect, the new form of needle-fiber calcite would be specific for this process in anthropogenic soils in cold climates, and could provide information on past climatic conditions. Abstract Copyright (2014) Elsevier, B.V.

DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.08.015

14014242 Ikeda, Atsushi (University of Tsukuba, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, Ibaraki, Japan). Morphology of rock glaciers; a review: in Collected papers on Frozen ground (Takeda, Kazuo, editor), Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 315-324, (Japanese), illus., 66 ref., September 2013.

14014407 Vallin, Luc (Service Régional de l'Archéologie Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Lille, France); Caspar, Jean-Paul; Guillemet, Gérard; Masson, Bertrand and Ozouf, Jean-Claude. Altérations des artefacts préhistoriques en silex par les processus périglaciaires; présentation des expériences conduites au Centre de Géomorphologie du CNRS de Caen [Modifications of prehistoric flint artifacts by periglacial processes; presentation of experiments performed in the CNRS, Center for Geomorphology in Caen]: Quaternaire (Paris), 24(3), p. 259-266 (English sum.), illus. incl. 3 tables, 27 ref., September 2013.

The microwear analysis of palaeolithic flints found in periglacial context led us to postulate the impact of ground frost on flint artefacts. To verify this hypothesis and consider the forms of post-depositional processes, laboratory experiments have been organized between 2004 and 2007 in the "Centre de Geomorphologie" (CNRS) of Caen, where patterns including flint artefacts have been subjected to freezing-thawing cycles. First results show microscopic alterations of the surface of flints that have been buried in loam. This must be confirmed and specified by microwear analysis.

14014237 Watanabe, Kunio (Mie University, Graduate School of Bioresources, Tsu, Japan) and Wake, Tomomi. Solute effect on soil water flow and hydraulic properties of frozen unsaturated sand: in Collected papers on Frozen ground (Takeda, Kazuo, editor), Seppyo = Journal of the Japanese Society of Snow and Ice, 75(5), p. 253-261, (Japanese) (English sum.), illus., 41 ref., September 2013.

Understanding the solute effect on soil water dynamics during soil freezing is important for managing soil water and nutrients and for controlling groundwater pollution. In this study, we performed a column experiment, using variably saturated sand with NaCl solution, to estimate the solute effect on soil water flow and hydraulic properties. The sand column (i.d.: 78 mm; length: 350 mm), which was instrumented with seven thermocouples and seven time domain reflectometry probes, was cooled from the top to form a frozen layer. We monitored temperature, liquid water content, and solute concentration. Water flow from the unsaturated region to the frozen region and solute accumulation in the frozen region due to convection were observed. When the soil contained solutes, the frost reached deeper and frost-induced water flow decreased. Applying a capillary bundle model to the column experiment showed that pore-ice formation resulted in a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity of the frozen sand. The frozen sand showed the same relationship between unfrozen water content and hydraulic conductivity irrespective of the soil solute concentration, but the relationship between temperature and unfrozen water content varied depending on the solute concentration.

14013181 Shpolyanskaya, N. A. (Moskovskiy Gosudarstvennyy Universitet, Moscow, Russian Federation). Paleogeografiya pleystotsena Rossiyskoy Arktiki na osnove analiza podzemnykh l'dov [Pleistocene paleogeography of the Russian Arctic based on underground ice analysis]: Kriosfera Zemli = Earth Cryosphere, 17(2), p. 12-25 (English sum.), illus. incl. sects., sketch maps, 60 ref., June 2013.

The Russian Arctic has been demonstrated. The mechanism of bottom sediment freezing has been suggested. New genetic types of massive ice have been worked out. Spatial patterns of thick ground ice beds also cover the issue of the Arctic Basin's level fluctuations. Apparently, they are almost unrelated to glacioeustatic processes, but are to a greater degree caused by regional tectonics. The limited distribution of glacial cover in the Russian North and its absence on the Russian Arctic and Subarctic Plains have been marked out.

14008463 Neizvestnov, Ya. V. (VNIIOkeangeologiya, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation); Kozlov, S. A. and Kondratenko, A. V. Izmenchivost' i neodnorodnost' fiziko-mekhanicheskikh svoystv noveyshikh otlozheniy shel'fa morey Severnogo Ledovitogo okeana [Variability and heterogeneity of physical-mechanical properties of the youngest marine shelf sediments in the Arctic Ocean]: in Aktual'nyye problemy gornykh nauk (Litvinenko, V. S., editor), Zapiski Gornogo Instituta, 197, p. 203-208 (English sum.), 8 ref., 2012.

The peculiarities of structure and physical-mechanical properties of bottom soils of the Barents and Kara Seas are considered from the engineering-geological position. The conditions for the formation of the latest sediments, their relationship with the repeated freezing and defrosting during the late Cenozoic, and the peculiarities of Polar lithogenesis are analyzed. Regional factors of variability and features of variability of the physical-mechanical properties of bottom soil with depth are shown. Conclusions are made about the ambiguous influence of the historical-geological factors on physical-mechanical properties of soils. The role of soils containing submarine gas hydrates is shown.

14008456 Yakovlev, A. A. (Natsional'nyy Mineral'no-Syr'yevoy Universitet "Gornyy", Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation). Analiz usloviy nadezhnogo tamponirovaniya skvazhin gazozhidkostnymi tamponazhnymi smesyami [Analysis of reliable conditions for tamping liquid-gas wells with plugging mixtures]: in Aktual'nyye problemy gornykh nauk (Litvinenko, V. S., editor), Zapiski Gornogo Instituta, 197, p. 71-74 (English sum.), 2 tables, 6 ref., 2012.

Conditions of reliable tamping of wells by foamed cements in frozen rocks are evaluated. Current analysis of the temperature field of concrete frozen rocks with varying temperature is carried out. It allows one to establish conditions of reliable fastening of wells and the effective application of these foamed cements and does not require special technological methods for drilling concrete frozen rocks.

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14009068 Harden, Jennifer (U. S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA); Ewing, Stephanie; Jorgenson, Torre; Koven, Charles; Lawrence, Corey; Schulz, Marjorie and Waldrop, Mark. The weathering forefront for permafrost carbon; priorities for critical zone research [abstr.]: in Goldschmidt 2012 abstract volume, Mineralogical Magazine, 76(6), p. 1812, illus., 2012. Meeting: Goldschmidt 2012, June 24-29, 2012, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Little is known about mineral weathering in permafrost soils. Yet as permafrost thaws, mineral stabilization of carbon may become exceedingly important owing to the large stores of permafrost carbon that will thaw over the next century. In areas where permafrost is not present, carbon is often stabilized by organo-mineral binding and complexation driven by mineral weathering. Hydrology and biogeochemistry are key to pathways and transit times of carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. Above the permafrost (the active layer), water and ice contents influence thermal conductance and rates of thawing; decomposition of organic matter increases dramatically upon thaw; organic matter structure is linked to soil moisture and vegetation characteristics. In deeper soils with permafrost, the amounts and forms of carbon have been characterized according to processes of C stabilization (Figure 1), but carbon forms have not been related mechanistically to water, mineral surfaces, and biogeochemistry in a way that addresses processes at meaningful scales. Thus the processing and microenvironments of permafrost carbon at the micro and macroscale will be key to understanding how and where permafrost carbon may be stabilized or destabilized upon thaw.

URL: http://www.minersoc.org/files/Goldschmidt2012_Conference_Abstracts_H.pdf

14010102 Orlov, T. V. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Moscow, Russian Federation). Statistical analysis of simultaneous start of thermokarst caused by permafrost degradation [abstr.]: in 34th international geological congress; abstracts, International Geological Congress, Abstracts = Congrès Géologique International, Résumés, 34, p. 1144, 2 ref., 2012. Meeting: 34th international geological congress, Aug. 5-10, 2012, Brisbane, Queensl., Australia.

Introduction -- The region of research is characterized with rather slow velocities of the permafrost processes. Velocities of the permafrost processes rise up caused by disturbance of the land cover (while pipelines building), warming ground up and environment equilibrium disturbance. Modeling of the avalanche-like thermokarst is very important for thermokarst impact to the pipeline investigation. The aim of this work is to estimate the possibility of using of the mathematical model of landscape pattern of themokarst lake plains (Viktorov A.S. 1995, 2005) for non-stationary case of avalanche-like start of thermokarst. Methods and Materials -- The materials were airborne images (0,2 m/pix). The length of interpretation of homogeneous section was 4,5 km, the width was 50 m. The main conclusion of landscape pattern of themokarst lake plains models was that sizes of the thermokarst depressions would have lognormal distribution (in condition of synchronous start of the process). So if we can show that sizes of the thermokarst depressions have lognormal distribution, we can prove justice of the model hypothesis for the case of anthropogenic start of the process. Results -- At the pipeline section was recognized 600 primary thermokarst depressions. Average depression area was 11,2 m2, minimum was 0,11 m2, maximum was 145,8 m2. There was done comparing empirical distribution with theoretical lognormal one. Critical value of chi-square criteria for 0,95 significance level and 21 degrees of freedom is 32,67. Empirical value of the criteria was 31.81. Conclusion -- There was proved that primary thermokarst depression areas have lognormal distribution. So its evolution will be described by landscape pattern of themokarst lake plains model.

14010416 Sanin, A. B. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Space Reseach, Moscow, Russian Federation); Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. P.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Milikh, G.; Sagdeev, R. Z. and Starr, R. D. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in the lunar South Polar regions of permafrost in vicinity of Cabeus and Shoemaker Craters: in 44th lunar and planetary science conference, Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, Abstract 2741, sketch map, 14 ref., 2013. Meeting: 44th lunar and planetary science conference, March 18-22, 2013, Woodlands, TX.

URL: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/pdf/2741.pdf

14009092 Zentilli, Marcos (Dalhousie University, Department of Earth Sciences, Halifax, NS, Canada); Omelon, Christopher R.; Hanley, Jacob; LeFort, Darren; Andersen, Dale T. and Pollard, Wayne H. Remains of ancient precursor of perennial springs in the High Arctic [abstr.]: in Goldschmidt 2012 abstract volume, Mineralogical Magazine, 76(6), p. 2586, 2 ref., 2012. Meeting: Goldschmidt 2012, June 24-29, 2012, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Saline springs in the Canadian high Arctic where water flows perennially at constant temperatures, despite the presence of deep (>400 m) permafrost, are being studied as possible environments for the development of bacterial life as an analogue for similar situations in other planets. Most documented spring activity occurs marginal to large evaporite diapirs (e.g. salt domes), and have been interpreted to represent recent phenomena related to deglaciation. A relict of an ancient precursor of the active springs was found in 2005 on a steep west flank eroded by White Glacier (WG) at Expedition Fiord, Axel Heiberg Island (79.44°N; 90.70°W; 350 m.a.s.l.). A network of veins, mineralized fractures, layered masses and breccias is exposed across an area of ca. 350 ´ 50 m, where the host rock is brecciated dolomitic limestone and sandstone, anhydrite-gypsum, and intrusive igneous rocks (altered basalt). Mineralization consists of calcite in acicular, radial aggregates lining fractures and cavities, with textures wholly reminiscent of brownish calcite in active springs at Colour Peak, only 13.7 km southwest of this site. Iceland spar calcite fills the centre of larger cavities. Abundant crystalline Fe sulfides (FeS2 marcasite, pyrite) occur in the veins and as alteration of basalt. Quartz occurs in some veins, and epidote and chlorite rim some veins where the host rock is igneous. Fluid inclusions in calcite (5-10 mm) have salinities that fall into two distinct groups: one very low, ca. 1.5 and another ca. 16 NaCl wt% equivalent. Inclusions that occupy growth zones in some of the coarser acicular calcite crystals and deemed primary, have Th ranging from 100°C to 300°C (n = 26, average 207°C; independent of salinity), hence orders of magnitude higher than the average ca. 6°C of the brines in the active springs. Despite the similarities of the WG site with perennial springs at nearby Colour Peak, these results cannot be explained by models invoking shallow circulation of fluids related to deglaciation [e.g. 1]. We propose a model by which deeply-circulating hot basinal fluids associated with evaporite structures mixed with low-salinity surficial waters, in recurrent pulses. Low-temperature thermochronology (apatite fission tracks) indicates that the rocks now exposed at the surface at WG were at several km depth and temperatures of ca. 100°C until ca. 10 Ma, thus compatible with long-lasting circulation of warm fluids well before the Quaternary and ample opportunity for microbial colonization.

URL: http://www.minersoc.org/files/Goldschmidt2012_Conference_Abstracts_Z.pdf

14010429 Cahill, J. T. S. (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD); Siegler, M. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Bussey, D. B. J.; McGovern, J. A. and Even, M. Characterization of lunar polar and non-polar permanent shadow physical and thermal characteristics via Mini-RF and DIVINER: in 44th lunar and planetary science conference, Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, Abstract 2590, illus. incl. sketch maps, 30 ref., 2013. Meeting: 44th lunar and planetary science conference, March 18-22, 2013, Woodlands, TX.

URL: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/pdf/2590.pdf

14007061 Kargel, J. S. (University of Arizona, Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, Tucson, AZ). Mercury's hollows; calcogenide pyro-thermokarst analog of thermokarst on Earth, Mars and Titan: in 44th lunar and planetary science conference, Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, Abstract 2840, illus., 2013. Meeting: 44th lunar and planetary science conference, March 18-22, 2013, Woodlands, TX. Accessed on June 13, 2013.

URL: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2013/pdf/2840.pdf

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